Maintenance Notice

Due to necessary scheduled maintenance, the JMIR Publications website will be unavailable from Monday, December 24 through Wednesday, December 26 inclusive. We apologize in advance for any inconvenience this may cause you.

Who will be affected?

Editorial Policies

Editorial Policies

Focus and Scope

"The future is data" (Patty Brennan, Incoming NLM Director, 2016)

Do you have a dataset that has already been analyzed and led to a number of publications, but which could also be valuable for other researchers? Do you want to get credit for generating a potentially interesting dataset even if you are not the one who wish to analyze them? Do you wish to launch a challenge / competition (you have a dataset, and want others to solve a problem or answer a question with it - can be combined with publishing a competition document in JMIR Challenges).

JMIR Data is a new unique journal focusing on the publication and curation of datasets, small and large, in the field of medicine and health.

Section Policies


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Connected Health Conference 2017

20% discount on the APF for presenters at the Boston Connected Health Conference
Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process

When we receive a manuscript, the Managing Editor and/or Assistant Editor and/or the Section Editor will first decide whether the manuscript meets the formal criteria specified in the Instructions for Authors and whether it fits within the scope of the journal. When in doubt, the editor will consult other members of the Editorial Board. Manuscripts are then assigned to a section editor, who sends it to 2-4 external experts for peer review. Authors are required to suggest at least 2 peer-reviewers (who do not have an conflict of interest) during the submission process. JMIR reviewers will not stay anonymous their names will be revealed and stated below the article in the event that the manuscript will be published. Authors and reviewers should not directly contact each other to enter into disputes on manuscripts or reviews.

We acknowledge the need of our authors to communicate their findings rapidly. We therefore aim to be extremely fast (but still thorough and rigorous) in our peer-review process.

In terms of the peer-review criteria for datasets, we follow the recommendations described in a 2011 article by Lawrence, Jones, Matthews, Pepler, and Callaghan, which is quoted below verbatim: 

"The data peer review procedure must ensure that all metadata is as complete as possible, but it must also address other qualities expected of Publication class material, such as the data’s internal self-consistency, the merit of the algorithms used, the data importance, and its potential impact. Internal self-consistency is relatively easy to evaluate: in the case of data, many checks can be automated, but it still requires a human to make summary judgments on the results. For example, a temperature dataset with units of Kelvin can be easily rejected if negative numbers appear, but if the units are Celsius, a different discrimination might be needed. In either case, a human might need to decide what the bounds of realistic numbers might be. One can also make additional requirements of data: for example, by requiring explicit assessments of measurement (or simulation) uncertainty. In many cases, data will consist of observations of phenomena made with state-ofthe art instrumentation, but even when the instruments are not the best or the latest, observations of real world phenomena still have value. The situation is more difficult where the data is produced by analysis or simulation using algorithms which are not regarded by the community as the best or most complete. In these cases, value judgments will need to be made as to whether future use of the data (without reproduction) is likely, and whether or not the data has some merit as evidence in its own right. This is more likely where there is some chance of a future legal challenge to conclusions that might be drawn from the data. Similar judgments will need to be made regarding the importance and impact of data. Often individually unimportant data measurements can gain value from being aggregated, and within that, in many cases, there is a continuum of measurements which needs to be rather arbitrarily divided into datasets (or in our case “Publishable entities”). Traditional metrics of the value of databases are predicated on “usage equals value” (Wilson, 2001). However, many data producers will need to have a view of the far distant future. We expect that, just like the traditional journal world, data publishers will appear providing publications that are recognized to have a range of subject matter, quality and impact.

The data review will vary according to discipline and type of data, given a full spectrum of possibilities from unrepeatable irreplaceable measurements to repeatable improvable simulations, though we have attempted to make the checklist as generic as possible.

Data Quality:

 Is the format acceptable? If so, is there an automatic format checker available, and if there is, does the dataset/file pass the automated checks?

 Are data values internally consistent? Do they fall within an appropriate range for the phenomenon being measured/observed/simulated? (For example, does a temperature dataset with values in degrees Kelvin have negative values?)

 Does the data represent reality with sufficient accuracy to use? Is the data of tolerable precision? (In the case of simulations, can the simulation be trivially repeated, in which case publication of the data is probably unwarranted.)

 Does the extent and coverage of the data match expectations? Does the coverage (spatial and/or temporal) add significant value to what is already available? (If not, is there added precision or some other reason for its publication? See also the discussion below on granularity.)

 Are the data values reported physically possible and plausible? (This requires significant domain knowledge, or a clear definition of what the data values range should be.)

 Is the data validated against an independent dataset? (Has it been calibrated?)

Metadata Quality:

 Is there sufficient quality metadata describing the format and physical content? (See for example, the requirements of the PDS, 2009.)

 Is there sufficient quality metadata describing provenance and context? Has the data changed in some way since it was measured? Is the processing chain visible and well documented? Have all the human interactions with the data prior to ingest/publication been recorded?

 Is there existing metadata (or are there references) already making assertions about the quality and usefulness of the data? If so, are these included in the metadata?

 Is there suitable quality discovery metadata? At a bare minimum, can Dublin Core be constructed?

 Does the metadata use appropriate, controlled vocabularies?

 Can all internal references (both electronic, e.g. URL/DOI, and traditional, e.g. to ISO690) be resolved to real entities? Are the external electronic references stored in a trusted repository? If not, can they be cached with the metadata?

 Is all the available metadata conforming to standards?


 Is there an existing user community? Is that community happy that the data is usable? (This can be tracked after publication through citation, or before publication through the use of user surveys or comments in a process of open peer review.)

 What is the track record of the data source? Are they reliable?

 Are the intellectual property rights for the data established?

 Is the data available at the correct network address? In some cases there will be electronic services, such as visualizations, associated with the data, in which case the reviewer will need to address the service/data compatibility and function:

 Do the advertised services work with the data? Is it likely that these services can be maintained with time?

This list is not exhaustive, but does display the range of possible checks. Obviously many of the checks above are metadata checks rather than data checks. This is indicative of the fact that quality data is not possible without quality metadata. It will be seen that the metadata checks essentially follow the metadata taxonomy from AArchive to D-Discovery discussed above. In practice then, given complete and accurate data, the syntactical correctness and semantic completeness of the metadata is the key requirement of the review. It is not possible to evaluate the reproducibility of results produced from a published data set by peer review of that dataset, as it is only the dataset, not its associated results, that are being published. However, once a dataset is Published it allows anyone peer reviewing the analyses resulting from that data to check the reproducibility of the results.

Publication Frequency

JMIR Data (JDATA) publishes articles "continuously," i.e. articles are published online as soon as they are available (peer-reviewed and copy-edited).

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge and accelerates research.

Copyright is retained by the authors and articles can be freely used and distributed by others. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published by JMIR Publications, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information (authors, title, journal, volume/issue, articleID), a link to the original publication (URL), as well as this copyright and license information ("Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution cc-by 4.0") must be included.


JDATA uses LOCKSS and will also be archived in Pubmed Central (application pending). The LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) system ensures a secure and permanent archive for the journal. LOCKSS is open source software developed at Stanford University Library that enables libraries to preserve selected web journals by regularly polling registered journal websites for newly published content and archiving it. Each archive is continually validated against other library caches, and if content is found to be corrupted or lost, the other caches or the journal is used to restore it.

Fee Schedule

Please note that an optional fast track fee is available for all journals for $450 USD.

Journal Submission Fee Article Processing Fee ** Notes
Journal of Medical Internet Research $90 $2500 1 An APF of $2500 is payable upon acceptance.
JMIR Research Protocols - $1900 or $950

Since Nov 2014, JMIR Research Protocols no longer charges a submission fee - papers can currently be submitted free of charge. In case of acceptance, an Article Processing Fee (APF) will be charged to cover peer-review, copyediting and typesetting costs:

  • $950: For protocols and grant proposals, if existing grant agency peer-review reports are provided (as Multimedia Appendix or supplementary file for reviewers/editors) which are of sufficient quality so that the manuscript does not have to be reviewed in detail externally (in submission step 1, choose a submission section which says "already funded")
  • $1900: For regular articles, non-peer-reviewed/approved protocols/proposals, early reports, formative research, methods etc
JMIR mHealth and uHealth - $2500 2 JMIR mHealth and uHealth does not charge any submission fee, but there is an Article Processing Fee (APF) in case of acceptance (see Fee Schedule), to cover the costs for professional copyediting, typesetting, and deposit in various databases (PubMed Central, PubMed etc.). Note that in 2017 we increased the price for submissions after Feb 5th, 2017 to account for the fact that JMIR mHealth has been ranked with a very solid impact factor in 2017. Submissions before that date (including those that were submitted to other jMIR journals but subsequently transferred) are not affected from this price increase.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance - $1750 3 -
Iproceedings - Free* There is currently no Submission fee or other costs involved for the abstract/extended abstract submission.
JMIR Mental Health - $1750 4 There is no submission fee. For papers accepted after March 1st, 2015, JMIR Mental Health charges an Article Processing Fee of US $1500 in case of acceptance (papers submitted to JMH before March 1st 2015 are exempt).
JMIR Medical Informatics - $1900 5 JMIR Med Inform currently charges no submission fee. For submissions after Dec 8th 2018, the Article Processing Charge is $1900.
Interactive Journal of Medical Research - $1500 i-JMR no longer charges a submission fee (after Dec 6, 2015). In case of acceptance, an Article Processing Fee of $1500 will be charged to cover copyediting and typesetting costs.
JMIR Human Factors - $1500 6 -
JMIR Serious Games - $1900 7 There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks. There is an Article Processing Fee payable only in case of acceptance, to cover copyediting and publishing costs.
JMIR Medical Education - $1500 8 -
JMIR Cancer - $1500 9 There is no Submission fee, but for submissions after Oct 15th, 2015, there is an Article Processing Fee of $1500.
JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies - $1500 10 There is no Submission fee, but for submissions after Oct 22nd, 2015, there is an Article Processing Fee of $1500. **** Special promotion: Submit between 6 Feb 2018 and 31 March 2018 for a complete APF/APC waiver! ****
JMIR Diabetes - $1500 11 There is currently no Submission fee but in case of acceptance there is an Article Processing Fee (submissions after May 15, 2017)
JMIR Formative Research - $1900 12 There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks. There is an Article Processing Fee of US$1500 in case of acceptance.
JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting - $1500 13 There is currently no Submission fee but in case of acceptance there is an Article Processing Fee of US$1500 (submissions after October 2, 2018). There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks.
JMIR Cardio - $1500 14 There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks. As an introductory offer, there is no APF for articles submitted before 30 September 2017. The APF is $1500 for papers submitted after that date. *** Special promotion - submit between 1 March and 31 March 2018 for a complete APF/APC waiver! ***
JMIR Aging - $1500 15 There is currently no Submission fee but in case of acceptance there is an Article Processing Fee of US$1500 (submissions after October 2, 2018). There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks.
Medicine 2.0 - $450 We currently charge no submission fee, but submission is only open to authors and works presented at the Medicine 2.0 congress ( There is no Article Processing Fee for papers submitted, starting 2013. If authors opt to have their manuscript copyedited by a professional copyeditor (this is the default and highly recommended!), a charge of $450 will be billed (up to 20 manuscript pages).
Journal of Participatory Medicine - $1500 Grant-funded research as well as research from institutions which have an institutional open access fund or other means of funding are subject to an Article Processing fee of $1500, payable in case of acceptance. All other papers (including non-funded papers by patients etc) are published free of charge.
JMIR Perioperative Medicine - Free There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Biomedical Engineering - Free* There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Dermatology - Free There is currently no Submission fee. There is an optional fast-track fee of US$450 if the author requires a decision within 3 weeks.
JMIR Challenges - Free* There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal.
JMIR Preprints - Free There is currently no Submission or Article Processing fee for this journal. After peer-review, the author can decide whether he wants to publish the paper in a partner journal (provided that the editor offers publication), which may or may not have its own Article Processing Fees, or can "publish" it on JMIR Preprints, which involves assignment of a DOI.
JMIR Nursing - Free* -
1For submissions in JMIR before Jul 29, 2015, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1900
2For submissions in JMU before Jun 01, 2015, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
For submissions in JMU between Jun 01, 2015 and Feb 05, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1900
3For submissions in JPH before Jun 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
For submissions in JPH between Jun 01, 2015 and Feb 06, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
4For submissions in JMH before Mar 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
For submissions in JMH between Mar 01, 2015 and Feb 05, 2017, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
5For submissions in JMI before Dec 08, 2018, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
6For submissions in JHF before Jun 01, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
7For submissions in JSG before Jan 21, 2018, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
8For submissions in JME before Sep 24, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
9For submissions in JC before Oct 15, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
10For submissions in JRAT before Oct 23, 2015, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
11For submissions in JD before May 15, 2017, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
12For submissions in JFR before Feb 04, 2019, the price of the Article Processing Fee (APF) is US$ 1500
13For submissions in JPP before Oct 03, 2018, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
14For submissions in JCARD before Sep 30, 2017, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)
15For submissions in JA before Oct 03, 2018, there is no Article Processing Fee (APF)

*Introductory offer

**Article Processing Fees (APFs) are only charged in case of acceptance, at the time of acceptance. In case of price increases, the submission date determines the price of the APF

There is currently no Submission or artice processing fee. 

Our fees are comparable to or lower than the fees of other Open Access publishers.

About JMIR Publications


JMIR Publications is the leading ehealth publisher, advancing progress in the health, engineering and social sciences to ultimately help people to live happier and healthier lives using technology.

Mission Statement

JMIR Publications helps innovators in the health technology space to collaborate and to disseminate their innovations, ideas, and research results to the widest possible audience, in a timely manner, adding value to the quality of the work and adhering to the highest ethical and quality standards.

We achieve this by using the Internet and the latest available technologies as well as by producing conferences and social media, and other innovative knowledge translation products. We also innovate in the scholarly communication space itself, experimenting with new business models, new models of peer-review and dissemination, and new technologies.


JMIR Publications is a rapidly growing innovative academic publisher. It builds on the success of JMIR (Journal of Medical Internet Research), which started in 1998 as a pioneering, small independent open access project hosted at a university, which subsequently grew into the most influential journal in medical informatics (ranked in Q1 by Impact Factor by Thomson Reuters as well as Scimago) and e-health services research. Due to the growth in influence and submissions, and to make the operations more sustainable and professional, the journal was incorporated as company in 2011. Shortly after incorporation, several spin-off journals were launched. Currently, JMIR Publications Inc. publishes over 1000 articles annually in over 20 journals - see Which journals is JMIR Publications currently publishing? for details.

Subscriptions (Membership)

Readers are invited to join the FREE electronic content alert service by registering here. Registered readers also receive access to a free PDF sample issue. JMIR is an open access journal - articles are available free of charge as HTML files. Frequent readers and researchers working in the ehealth field are encouraged to become a paying/supporting individual or institutional member, which provides additional benefits such as downloading articles or entire issues as PDF files, or (for some institutional memberships) Article Processing Fee waivers or discounts, to encourage faculty and students to publish in JMIR. With becoming a member you support the overarching mission of the journal, which is to improve health through prudent use of information and communication technology.

Editorial Board Policy

Purpose: The Editorial Board is a group of outstanding individuals committed to helping JMIR to produce an excellent multidisciplinary scientific publication of the highest quality Selection criteria for EB members: Editorial Board members are appointed by the publisher/editor-in-chief for a 3-year-term that is renewable. Editorial Board members should have reviewed for JMIR and should have published at least one article in JMIR. Editorial Board members should not sit on editorial boards of competing journals during their term, but exceptions are possible. Nominations for Editorial Board appointments come from a variety of sources including self-nominations, the current Editorial Board, journal authors, and readers. The editorial board should constitute an appropriate interdisciplinary mix from a wide range of disciplines, including health care researchers, researchers from the engineering sciences, social sciences, and even patient representatives. EB members should be productive and respected members of the scientific community. In addition, JMIR is actively looking for consumer presentation on its board. Being a editorial board member for JMIR means that actual work is required, so EB members should have appropriate time and motivation. Main responsibilities • General advocacy for open access publishing in general and publishing high-quality work in JMIR specifically • Strategic and operational advice (unsolicited, as well as in editorial board meetings) • Guiding papers in their area of expertise through the peer-review process Individuals interested in sitting on the Editorial Board should contact the editor-in-chief.

Theme Issues and Guest Editors

JMIR reaches tens of thousands of readers interested in information and communication technologies in health, and is therefore the preeminent knowledge translation venue in this area. We are happy to support, produce and co-edit JMIR Theme Issues as major knowledge translation activities in important and emerging areas of ehealth, with leaders in the respective fields as guest editors. We are looking for guest editors who wish to compile a theme issue on a special topic (for example: electronic publishing, telemedicine, quality of health information, patient education, decision-support, Internet in psychiatry, theory in ehealth, mobile technologies, Web 2.0, ...). This may be particularly interesting for workshop and conference organizers putting together a grant-funded event (e.g. with invited experts) on an eHealth-related topic. JMIR is an excellent dissemination vehicle of ehealth-related workshop results. Theme issues may also be used as a knowledge dissemination vehicle for results from large collaborative grant-funded projects. Theme issues may contain for example state-of-the-art papers from selected/invited experts, research results from a large grant proposal (e.g. a series of connected studies), or simply articles submitted in response to a specific open call for papers. The task of the guest editor(s) is generally

* to solicit manuscripts from colleagues/experts concerning the selected topic,

* to select peer-reviewers for incoming manuscripts,

* to make decisions (together with the editorial board) on article revisions and acceptance,

* to write an editorial for the theme issue

* to secure funding to sponsor the APFs (Article Processing Fees) for published papers (usually in the $10-25k range, please budget $1590 per paper). If the guest editor has a network of colleagues who have indicated that they can carry the APF themselves, then author-funded theme issues are also possible.

Funding through grants or other sources is usually required and should be budgeted for in grant proposals. In the past, funding agencies such as NIH/NCI, CIHR, or private foundations have successfully been approached by the Guest Editor(s) to secure the funds. For example, CIHR has launched a new program called "End of Grant Knowledge Translation Supplement," worth $25k, which enables the funding of a theme issue (more information here). Peer-reviewers at granting agencies also expect a portion of the budget devoted to knowledge dissemination and knowledge translation, and JMIR theme issues can be proposed to facilitate dissemination of research results (due to the Open Access policy, results reach a broader audience beyond the research community). We urge principal investigators of any larger team grant proposals related to health and information/communication technology to budget for a theme issue (or at least a series of JMIR papers). Letters of support and quotes from JMIR are available on request (please contact the editor-in-chief). Another possible funding venue are workshop funding programs. Again, that granting agencies such as NIH or CIHR usually expect to see some sort of knowledge dissemination activities in workshop proposals, and have in the past funded the JMIR APFs.

The editor of JMIR is happy to support and actively help with any knowledge translation component in grant proposals incorporating some of the ideas listed above (as well as novel ideas e.g. mutlimedia, podcasting etc., cobranded with JMIR).

Instructions for Authors

Before submitting, please read our instructions for authors. To submit the paper, create a user account as author and submit the paper in the author section of your user homepage. A Word-template of an article compatible with journals from JMIR Publications can be downloaded from Note that the references can be in any format, as long as the in-text citations are sequentially numbered in the manuscript with square brackets and as long as the reference at the end has a PMID in the format PMID:123456. See Instructions for Authors for details. .

As a service for our authors we now offer the possibility to have a submission considered in partner journals, which means that the manuscript and peer-review reports may be transferred to a JMIR sister/partner journal, if the paper is not found suitable for publication in JMIR, but is publishable in another journal. These journals include e.g. i-JMR, JMIR Res Protoc, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, JMIR Medical Informatics, JMIR Human Factors, JMIR Mental Health, JMIR Public Health, JMIR Cancer, Medicine 2.0 and others. The submission fee for that partner journal (if any) will be waived, and transfer of the peer-review reports may mean that the paper does not have to be re-reviewed. Authors will receive a notification when the manuscript is rejected for J Med Internet Res and transferred, and at that time can decide if they want to pursue publication in a sister/partner journal. If authors do NOT wish an automatic transfer to an alternative journal after rejection for JMIR, this should be noted in the cover letter.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice

Conflict of Interests section is mandatory for all manuscripts. Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). These relationships vary from those with negligible potential to those with great potential to influence judgment, and not all relationships represent true conflict of interest. The potential for conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment. Financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony) are the most easily identifiable conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the journal, the authors, and of science itself. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. In JMIR Med Inform, conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) employment at and/or ownership of stocks or stock options in companies whose products/apps/software were evaluated. If no conflicts exist, please write "Conflict of Interests - None declared" (place after "Acknowledgements", before the References section).

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate IRB (Institutional Reserch Board, also known as REB) approval/exemption and whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. 

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the published article.

Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

JMIR Publications is a member of COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics). The entire publication process from submission, review, to publication, adheres to the COPE guidelines, and suspected cases of misconduct will be investigated using COPE Flowcharts.

Trademarks Policy

Certain names, graphics, logos, icons, designs, words, titles or phrases on this Web site or in JMIR articles may constitute trade names, trademarks or service marks of JMIR or other entities. As customary in scholarly articles, trademarks and service marks are not necessarily indicated as such by using the trademark (TM), service mark (SM), or registered trademark (R) symbols. Omission of these symbols do not imply the absence of a trademark registration. The display of trademarks on pages at this Web site does not imply that a license of any kind has been granted. JMIR, Medicine 2.0, Healthbook, and WebCite are registered trademarks owned by JMIR Publications.